THE ROMANIZATION OF THE IBERIAN PENINSULA


(By Alvaro Sánchez, Marta Martínez, Javier Naranjo, Juan Camilo Rodriguez, Rosselveth Vargas)


The Romanization is the process by which the Roman culture was implanted in the Iberian Peninsula.
The Roman people came to the Iberian Peninsula in the 218 b.C.The conquer of the Iberian Peninsula lasted for two hundred years.In the 19 b.C. They finally conquer the Iberian peninsula subjugating the last two towns: the Astures and the Cantabros.In this period of time the conquered areas were adaptated to the Roman customes.This is called the Romanización.

Here you have a video of the Roman Colonization.




In the Romanización the oficial language was the Latin.The dress of the Roman colonization consist of two :
  • indutus, the interior ones.
  • amictus, the exterior ones.
In the first years, the dresses were reduced to a robe.Its colour was the white,especially in the people that were aspirating to the Magistracy.The kids and the magistrades wear a whuite robe with violet streams.(toga praexata)
The conquerors in his triunfal phase, they were the white robe with gold embroidery.(toga palmata)

Stages of the conquest:

1.Conquest of east and the peninsular south(218-197 b.C.):
The Carthaginians had important accessions in the peninsular east and from there they attacked Rome across the south of France and the Alps.Rome counter-attacked invading the possessions Carthaginians in Roman Spain at the end of the 3rd century.
The Ilipa's Roman victory(209 b.C.)put end to the presence cartaginesa in Roman Spain and the domain of Rome dedicated on this and the peninsular south.

2.Conquest of the centre and the peninsular west(155-133 b.C.):
The Romans had to face to the resistance of the peoples of this zone.The hard Celtiberian resitencia in Numancia up to his surrender in the 133 a.C. The Roman Republic lived through diverse civil wars that came to the peninsula.The internal fights of Rome gave place to warlike clashes in the peninsula.These conflicts accelerated the Roman domain over the peninsula.

3.Conquest of the peninsular north(29-19 b.C.):
The end of the conquest came in times of Augusto, the first Roman emperor, with the domination of galaicos, astures, cántabros y vascones (Cantabrian wars).

Stages of the conquest
Stages of the conquest

Territorial Organization:

In a beginning the territorial organization was divided in two provinces: The Hispania Citerior and The Hispania Uterior.
Later it was divided, first, in three provinces(Bética,Lusitana y Tarraconense) and,later,in five (Bética, Lusitana, Tarraconense, Gallaecia y Cartaginense).

Provinces of the Hispania Romana
Provinces of the Hispania Romana


The influence of the Roman culture on the peninsular peoples:
The language: It was a fundamental factor. In the whole peninsula was spoke the Latin.
The laws: The laws that the Romans brought were implanted in the whole peninsula.
The Customs: One started doing the same form of life that the Romans had.
The road links: Routes of stone were created by the whole territory as routes to communicate.

Via de la Plata

The Vía de La Plata (Silver Way) or Ruta de la Plata (Silver Route) is an old commercial and pilgrimage path that crosses the west of Spain from north to south, connecting Mérida to Astorga, and in extension Seville with the Bay of Biscay, at Gijón.
The "Tin Way" was used as an access road, which allowed the Romans to conquer tribes such as the Callaici, the Astures, and the Vacceos. Many sources, among them the Antonine Itinerary, describe the route to leave from Emerita Augusta, (present-day Mérida), capital of Lusitania, towards Asturica Augusta (present-day Astorga) through Tarraconensis.

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Actually Via de la Plata

Asturica Augusta (Astorga) in Northwestern Spain, to Emerita Augusta (Mérida) in southwestern Spain. Hence Hannibal's armies, and their elephants, must have passed along it.

Via de la Plata
Via de la Plata


The road's first official name was Via Delapidata (meaning "Paved Stone Way"), stretched around 900 km (560 miles), and had a branch that joined with the Via Augusta (or Via Heraclea). After its establishment, the Via Delapidata crossed Hispania from Cádiz, through the Pyrenees, towards Gallia Narbonensis (southern France) and Rome in the Italian Peninsula. Currently, the road passes through Salmantica (Salamanca), Metelinum (Medellín), and Castra Caecilia (Cáceres). The Via Delapidata also served as an access road from Hispania Baetica.The "Silver Way" was, technically, never a belt road for silver commerce. The name was transmogrified from Via Delapidata to Vía de la Plata as a result of phonetic confusion. During the Reconquista, the Via Delapidata was pronounced by the Christians of the era as the Vía de la Plata, which reflected their social orientation towards the accumulation or appreciation of gold.



However,euring the Roman Empire it is known that it was used to connect two main areas of the higher importance at both ends of this west road of the Peninsula,the Gold mines of Las Medulas and the ore and Copper mines of Rio Tinto to the maritime closest harbors to the Mediterranean in order to assure the transport to the metropolis of these rich supplies.

Las Médulas

Las Médulas desde el aire
Las Médulas desde el aire

En Las Médulas, igual que en otros muchos sitios, los romanos empezaron obtener el oro a principios del Imperio. Los romanos extraían oro y lo empleaban principalmente para hacer monedas, aunque, también se hacían joyas con ese metal. Augusto, para fortalecer su poder, decidió que hubiese un único sistema monetario en el Imperio. Las dos monedas principales eran de oro (el áureo), y de plata, el (denario), pero habitualmente se usaban otras de bronce o cobre.(El áureo era la más valiosa; un áureo era igual a 25 denarios o a 400 ases, que era una moneda de uso cotidiano.)

Moneda romana. Anverso y Reverso
Moneda romana. Anverso y Reverso

El estado romano sacó de Las Médulas y de otras minas del Noroeste buena parte del oro necesario para acuñar la moneda durante dos siglos. Pero en el siglo III las monedas cambiaron de valor y las minas dejaron de funcionar.
El Imperio estaba repleto de calzadas para atravesar todo el territorio que pertenece a Roma. Muchas se empezaron a construir durante la conquista para el paso del ejército y más tarde para el transporte de mercancías y personas. El Noroeste en general ,también Las Médulas pasaron a formar parte de un Imperio gobernado desde Roma. Este imperio estaba dividido en provincias. La zona de Las Médulas quedaba dentro de la provincia Hispania Citerior. Cuando los romanos llegaron a Las Médulas, se produjo un cambio muy grande y rápido en la vida de las gentes que vivían allí, porque el estado estaba muy interesado en conseguir oro.
Interior de Las Médulas
Interior de Las Médulas


Villa La Olmeda

It is a Roman villa placed in the municipal area of Pedrosa de la Vega (Palencia,Castilla y Leon ,España).It was discovered in 1968, it is one of the most important archaeological deposits of the Roman Hispanic world.


Mosaic Villa de la Olmeda
Mosaic Villa de la Olmeda





Is a great mansion of the Low Empire (s. The IVth d. C) It has a principal building of square plant surrounded by two towers, has a central court for which the different dependences are opened, the majority of they with pavements of mosaics.








Virtual visit :
http://www.villaromanaolmeda.com/360/olmeda.html?idSeccion=mi_2_6

Map of Villa la Olmeda
Map of Villa la Olmeda




Mosaic Villa de la Olmeda
Mosaic Villa de la Olmeda

It is a palace of the imperial Roman epoch of the century IV.Also they have managed to find coins of the epoch.


Villa La Olmeda
Villa La Olmeda

Villa La Olmeda